(See Energy Level Diagrams for 16O)
Shell model: (1976AP01, 1976BE1W, 1976NA1L, 1977AP01, 1977BR26, 1977CA02, 1977CA08, 1977CA1T, 1977GO20, 1977HE23, 1977HE13, 1977LI1M, 1977SA1Y, 1977WA1T, 1977ZH1A, 1978AP02, 1978BA52, 1978CH26, 1978DA15, 1978HE04, 1978HO07, 1979AY02, 1979HA59, 1979JO1F, 1979KA06, 1979PE03, 1979RO1J, 1979SA30, 1979ST20, 1979VAZV, 1980ANYZ, 1980ANZA, 1980GI05, 1980HA35, 1980MC1D, 1980PE09, 1980WA1J, 1981KA09).
Cluster and α-particle models: (1975FA1F, 1975HO1H, 1976AP1A, 1976AP01, 1976AP02, 1976FL1B, 1976HO1F, 1976SU08, 1977BA30, 1977BE49, 1977HE23, 1977HO1E, 1977HO1F, 1977SA19, 1977SA1C, 1977SU1J, 1978AP02, 1978CH26, 1978HE04, 1978IS04, 1978KH1C, 1979AD1A, 1979GO24, 1979GR1F, 1979IN06, 1979RO02, 1979WI1B, 1979ZA07, 1980AG08, 1980DU13, 1980FU1G, 1980FU1H, 1980GU1B, 1980IK1B, 1980SU07, 1981EL1C, 1981EM1A, 1981EM02, 1981MA1G, 1981WI01).
Special states: (1975FA1F, 1975BR1L, 1975SI1F, 1976AP1A, 1976AP01, 1976AP02, 1976BA40, 1976BO1T, 1976FA1E, 1976HE20, 1976LI22, 1976ST17, 1976SU08, 1977AP01, 1977BL06, 1977BU24, 1977CA08, 1977FA1C, 1977GO20, 1977GR24, 1977HE18, 1977KA2A, 1977KN03, 1977KR1B, 1977MO1Q, 1977PE1F, 1977SU1J, 1977SU03, 1977WA1T, 1978CA08, 1978AP02, 1978BA52, 1978BA31, 1978BE56, 1978CH1Y, 1978CO19, 1978DA15, 1978DE16, 1978EN1D, 1978HA49, 1978KA1W, 1978MC04, 1978RA1B, 1978SA1N, 1978SC18, 1978SH04, 1979AB04, 1979CHZL, 1979GM02, 1979IN07, 1979KA40, 1979KI10, 1979KU1D, 1979PE03, 1979PR1C, 1979RO1J, 1979RO1B, 1979RO02, 1979SH24, 1979VL01, 1980BE38, 1980BR21, 1980CA15, 1980FU1H, 1980GO1Q, 1980HA35, 1980HI1C, 1980KA28, 1980ME03, 1980OK05, 1980OV1A, 1980SH1N, 1980SP04, 1980SU07, 1980TA1L, 1980WA1E, 1980WA1J, 1981CH1B, 1981CU1J, 1981EM02, 1981KA09, 1981RO06, 1981SP1A, 1981WI01).
Electromagnetic transitions: (1976BA40, 1976HE20, 1976HO16, 1976ST17, 1976SU08, 1977AN1L, 1977BE49, 1977BI1D, 1977BL06, 1977BR03, 1977DE15, 1977DO06, 1977GO1J, 1977GR24, 1977HE1L, 1977KO1N, 1977KR1B, 1977PE1F, 1977WA1T, 1978AD02, 1978BA52, 1978SC18, 1978TR1F, 1979KA40, 1979KU1D, 1979MO1U, 1979MO1X, 1980AR12, 1980DU13, 1980MU01, 1980PE09, 1980TO11, 1981SP1A).
Giant resonances (See also reactions 54 and 58.): (1975GE1L, 1975KR1F, 1975KR1G, 1976AM02, 1976BE1P, 1976MU08, 1977AB08, 1977BR03, 1977DE15, 1977GM01, 1977GO1J, 1977HE23, 1977KN03, 1977KR1B, 1977LI1L, 1977SA1Q, 1978AD02, 1978HE04, 1978RO05, 1978ST1M, 1978YU1A, 1979BL03, 1979BO04, 1979DO17, 1979FA12, 1979GM02, 1979GO01, 1979HA1G, 1979IM03, 1979IZ01, 1979KI1M, 1979KN1D, 1979KO18, 1979KR1E, 1979SH24, 1979WA09, 1980AR12, 1980BA1T, 1980BOZM, 1980GO05, 1980MU01, 1980SH1N, 1980SP1E, 1981KH04, 1981LI03).
Astrophysical questions: (1976BO1M, 1976NO1C, 1976QU1A, 1976SI1D, 1976VA1D, 1977AR1H, 1977AU1B, 1977AU1E, 1977AU1F, 1977AU1J, 1977BU1J, 1977CA1N, 1977CA1K, 1977CL1C, 1977EN1B, 1977FR1K, 1977IB1A, 1977JO1D, 1977KI1M, 1977PA1J, 1977PR1E, 1977SI1F, 1977ST1J, 1977TO1J, 1977VO1A, 1977WA1P, 1978BU1H, 1978BU1B, 1978BY1A, 1978CL1F, 1978DI1D, 1978FE1E, 1978GL1E, 1978IB1B, 1978IB1C, 1978KA1R, 1978LA1K, 1978LE1W, 1978LU1C, 1978MC1G, 1978ME1D, 1978OR1A, 1978PE1H, 1978PO1B, 1978ST1C, 1978TO1C, 1978TR1D, 1979CH1T, 1979DE1X, 1979GL1J, 1979KA1T, 1979LA1P, 1979LA1H, 1979LE1F, 1979MA2D, 1979MC1C, 1979PE1E, 1979RA1C, 1979SA1M, 1979SW1B, 1979TI1B, 1979WE1F, 1979WI1D, 1979WO07, 1980CA1M, 1980CL1B, 1980CO1R, 1980KA1Q, 1980MC1G, 1980ME1B, 1980MO1L, 1980RE1A, 1981DU1E, 1981GA1C, 1981GU1D, 1981WI1D, 1981WI1G).
Applications: (1976CH1N, 1976CH1P, 1976LE1Q, 1977EP1A, 1977GR1L, 1977LO1J, 1977MA1F, 1977MO1B, 1977TH1H, 1978EM1A, 1978HE1K, 1978TR1E, 1979GR1E, 1979JA1F, 1979LE1L, 1979SP1D, 1980HE1E, 1980LA1L, 1980MC1H).
Special reactions involving 16O: (1976CH28, 1976DA1G, 1976HO1D, 1976JA1E, 1976LE1F, 1977AR06, 1977CE1B, 1977CH09, 1977CO14, 1977FE1B, 1977GA1L, 1977HA18, 1977HA1X, 1977HO27, 1977JA1K, 1977KA1P, 1977LI1J, 1977MA1U, 1977MA1W, 1977MO17, 1977NA03, 1977OB02, 1977PR05, 1977SH1H, 1977ST1J, 1977TO1G, 1977TR08, 1977VA02, 1978VO10, 1978BA1J, 1978BH03, 1978BI03, 1978CO05, 1978FR19, 1978GO1N, 1978GY1A, 1978HE11, 1978HE1J, 1978HE23, 1978JA1N, 1978KO01, 1978KU1F, 1978KU1G, 1978OB01, 1978VO1D, 1978VO1A, 1979BA2A, 1979BE1M, 1979BL1E, 1979DE1T, 1979DY01, 1979GA04, 1979GE1A, 1979GO11, 1979HE1D, 1979KO1M, 1979MC1D, 1979ME1H, 1979MO17, 1979PO08, 1979SA27, 1979SA26, 1979SC08, 1979ST1D, 1979ST1R, 1979VA12, 1980AK02, 1980BA1G, 1980CE1B, 1980GR10, 1980KO10, 1980MI01, 1980OLZW, 1980OV1A, 1980SA1H, 1980SC1G, 1981BH02, 1981BO18, 1981CI03, 1981EG01, 1981MA1G, 1981SI01, 1981TA02, 1981TR03, 1981UC01).
Muon and neutrino capture and reactions: (1974KO1H, 1976DA1H, 1977BA1P, 1977BO23, 1977ER04, 1977GR1C, 1977LA04, 1977MU1A, 1977WA1G, 1978BA57, 1978GU07, 1978GU05, 1978IT1A, 1978PA1F, 1978RO1P, 1979BU1H, 1979DO17, 1979ER07, 1979FR1N, 1979GM03, 1979GU06, 1979GU08, 1979HO07, 1979KI1G, 1979KO39, 1979ME1J, 1979MU1B, 1979RH1A, 1979ST1Q, 1979SU08, 1979VE1D, 1979WU10, 1980BA36, 1980BR1A, 1980CH03, 1980CH20, 1980CH25, 1980ER01, 1980GR05, 1980KO1Y, 1980SU03, 1981CH1B, 1981EI1A, 1981ER1C, 1981GI1C, 1981TO1J, 1981NG01, 1981VA1J).
Pion capture and reactions: (1976BU19, 1976DE40, 1976LI24, 1976LI26, 1976RO14, 1977AL1C, 1977AL1W, 1977BA24, 1977BA3J, 1977BA1Q, 1977BA2G, 1977BA3G, 1977BE69, 1977BE35, 1977BO05, 1977BO1E, 1977BR01, BU77C, 1977CH1N, 1977CO27, 1977DO06, 1977ER04, 1977GI16, 1977GI14, 1977HI10, 1977HO13, 1977HO1B, 1977KA1N, 1977KO25, 1977LE16, 1977MA1M, 1977MA35, 1977MA1F, 1977MC1E, 1977MI15, 1977MI19, 1977NA1N, 1977NA02, 1977NA1Q, 1977PR1G, 1977RO1R, 1977SA1Y, 1977SC1F, 1977SI01, 1977SM06, 1977SP1B, 1977ST1V, 1977SU1L, 1977VI1A, 1977WA1H, 1977WA1R, 1978AL03, 1978BA42, 1978BA55, 1978BE1N, 1978BE1X, 1978BE27, 1978BO01, 1978BO25, 1978BO26, 1978BR1J, 1978BR1K, 1978ER02, 1978ER04, 1978FU04, 1978FU09, 1978GA1D, 1978GI1E, 1978GI05, 1978GR1D, 1978IN04, 1978JA15, 1978JA1G, 1978JA13, 1978KO1V, 1978KW1A, 1978LI1E, 1978MA14, 1978ME1K, 1978MO01, 1978NA1Q, 1978NA1N, 1978OH03, 1978RO1J, 1978SC1G, 1978SH1M, 1978SH12, 1978SH16, 1978SP1C, 1978WE1H, 1978WE1C, 1978YO02, 1979AB1H, 1979AL1J, 1979AMZY, 1979AN1J, 1979ANZM, 1979AR1L, 1979BA2M, 1979BL07, 1979BO1U, 1979BO12, 1979BO2H, 1979BO21, 1979BR1E, 1979BU1K, 1979CH1P, 1979DE1W, 1979DI1A, 1979DO17, 1979DY02, 1979EP02, 1979ER07, 1979GI1C, 1979HI04, 1979HU02, 1979HU1D, 1979IN1A, 1979JA11, 1979JA16, 1979JO08, 1979KL06, 1979KL07, 1979KN1E, 1979KO17, 1979LI01, 1979LI11, 1979MA07, 1979MA2H, 1979NA1M, 1979NA1J, 1979OH1A, 1979OS1G, 1979OS07, 1979PI1C, 1979RE1A, 1979RO1L, 1979SC1E, 1979SH1P, 1979SH1E, 1979SR1B, 1979ST02, 1979TR1H, 1979TR1B, 1979UL1A, 1979WA1J, 1979WA1G, 1979WI1E, 1979WI1A, 1980AL1D, 1980AL24, 1980AR1E, 1980AS1A, 1980BA12, 1980BA31, 1980BE35, 1980BE24, 1980BE56, 1980BH1A, 1980BH1C, 1980BR08, 1980BU15, 1980CH25, 1980CO1A, 1980CR03, 1980DE24, 1980DE2A, 1980ER01, 1980FR1H, 1980GR05, 1980GR1M, 1980GR1N, 1980HO1L, 1980HO24, 1980JE1C, 1980KA1L, 1980LA1C, 1980LE02, 1980LI1H, 1980LI1J, 1980LI1L, 1980MI11, 1980NA1B, 1980NA10, 1980OB1B, 1980SC1B, 1980SC24, 1980SE11, 1980SI03, 1980SP1A, 1980ST15, 1980ST25, 1980TH01, 1980TH1C, 1980TR1H, 1980WU01, 1981AS1D, 1981BA1P, 1981BO06, 1981BU1E, 1981CU04, 1981DO01, 1981DO02, 1981FR1E, 1981FR1F, 1981GI1B, 1981GR1K, 1981IO01, 1981KI1D, 1981LE06, 1981LI04, 1981LI1M, 1981MA1H, 1981MO1D, 1981MO11, 1981OS04, 1981SA14, 1981TH1B, 1981TH1D, 1981WE1C, 1981WH01, 1981WH1D).
K-mesons and other meson interactions: (1976BO1R, 1976BR1G, 1976DA1E, 1977BA3G, 1977BO2C, 1977JU1C, 1977KI1F, 1977LA1D, 1977PO1A, 1977TH1D, 1978AT01, 1978CO17, 1978GR1D, 1978PO1A, 1978SC1G, 1978SO1A, 1979BA36, 1979BO12, 1979CH1H, 1979GA1D, 1979GA1E, 1979GI1E, 1979KI1C, 1979PO1D, 1979RA18, 1980BAZF, 1980DO1G, 1980GA1C, 1980PO1A, 1981BE17, 1981BO09, 1981HU1B, 1981HU1C).
Other topics: (1975ER09, 1975GO1P, 1976BO1R, 1976BO1T, 1976DA1E, 1976FU1H, 1976GO27, 1976KN06, 1976LI22, 1976LO1D, 1976NA1L, 1976PR1B, 1976ST15, 1977AK1A, 1977AU1K, 1977BO2C, 1977BR1U, 1977BU24, 1977CA02, 1977CA1T, 1977DE16, 1977GO1J, 1977GO20, 1977HO1K, 1977HO22, 1977JE04, 1977KA2B, 1977KI1K, 1977KI1F, 1977KR1B, 1977LI1K, 1977LI1M, 1977MO1Q, 1977NE1C, 1977OS1E, 1977PO1A, 1977PR01, 1977SA1V, 1977SM1A, 1977SO12, 1977SU03, 1977TR01, 1977VA04, 1977WA1T, 1977ZA1C, 1978AN16, 1978AU12, 1978AU1E, 1978BA31, 1978BE57, 1978BI14, 1978BI1L, 1978BR27, 1978DA1A, 1978DE1K, 1978DE16, 1978EN1D, 1978FA1G, 1978GA1F, 1978HA1U, 1978HA49, 1978HO07, 1978KA04, 1978KA1W, 1978KH1B, 1978KO22, 1978KW1A, 1978LE06, 1978MC04, 1978MI1H, 1978MU1F, 1978ON01, 1978PO1A, 1978RO17, 1978SC18, 1978SH04, 1978SH1B, 1978SI08, 1978SI1G, 1978SO11, 1978SO1A, 1978ST1M, 1978UL02, 1979AB04, 1979AY02, 1979BE2L, 1979BI1C, 1979BO2F, 1979BO04, 1979BO2J, 1979BR30, 1979CH1H, 1979DE18, 1979DU03, 1979FL1H, 1979GA1D, 1979GA1E, 1979GO01, 1979GO24, 1979GO20, 1979GU16, 1979HA59, 1979HE1F, 1979JA09, 1979JA1U, 1979KA06, 1979KA13, 1979KA40, 1979KA43, 1979KI1C, 1979KI15, 1979KO1V, 1979KO27, 1979KO29, 1979LE1M, 1979MU12, 1979NO04, 1979PE03, 1979SA30, 1979ST20, 1979TA08, 1979TO19, 1979VA17, 1979VAZV, 1979ZA1B, 1979ZA07, 1980ANYZ, 1980ANZA, 1980BO1G, 1980BOZN, 1980BR21, 1980CA15, 1980DA1C, 1980DE1F, 1980DW1A, 1980FA04, 1980FA01, 1980GI05, 1980GO1Q, 1980HE07, 1980HI1C, 1980HY03, 1980JA1D, 1980KA1M, 1980ME07, 1980MU01, 1980MU1F, 1980NG01, 1980PO1A, 1980QU1A, 1980SH1N, 1980TA1L, 1980TO11, 1980VA07, 1980ZO1A, 1981BL04, 1981BO20, 1981BR1F, 1981CU1J, 1981DA1C, 1981DU1D, 1981LI03, 1981RO06, 1981SH1H, 1981ZA1E).
Ground state of 16O: (1976FU06, 1976GA24, 1976GI11, 1976SA1H, 1977AN12, 1977AN21, 1977BR03, 1977BU24, 1977DY1D, 1977GO1K, 1977GR08, 1977JE04, 1977MA35, 1977NO07, 1977PI10, 1977VA12, 1978CA08, 1978AL07, 1978AN07, 1978AN16, 1978BE57, 1978BE56, 1978BI14, 1978BI04, 1978BR1M, 1978CH28, 1978CH26, 1978FA1G, 1978HE1D, 1978KA04, 1978KO22, 1978MU1F, 1978NE03, 1978ON01, 1978RO17, 1978SH1B, 1978SI1G, 1978SM02, 1978SO11, 1978ST24, 1978UL02, 1978ZA05, 1978ZA1D, 1979AY02, 1979BE2M, 1979BI1C, 1979BR17, 1979BR30, 1979DU03, 1979FI01, 1979GO20, 1979GU08, 1979GU16, 1979HA59, 1979IN07, 1979JA09, 1979KA40, 1979KO29, 1979MA1C, 1979SA27, 1979SA30, 1979ST20, 1979VA17, 1980AN1M, 1980AR12, 1980BOZN, 1980BR13, 1980DE24, 1980FA04, 1980GI05, 1980GO05, 1980HI1C, 1980HO14, 1980HY03, 1980ME03, 1980MY01, 1980VA05, 1980WA1E, 1981AR1D, 1981AT1A, 1981BR1F, 1981DU1C, 1981SI1B, 1981ZA1E).
At E(6Li) = 4.9 MeV, the cross sections for reactions (a) to (e) leading to low-lying states in the residual nuclei are proportional to 2Jf + 1: this is interpreted as indicating that the reactions proceed via a statistical compound nucleus mechanism. For highly excited states, the cross section is higher than would be predicted by a 2Jf + 1 dependence (1966MC05). For reaction (f) see (1976PO02). See also (1977AJ02), and 12C in (1980AJ01), 13C, 13N, 14N and 15N in (1981AJ01).
States of 16O observed at E(10B) = 20 MeV are displayed in Table 16.10 (in PDF or PS) of (1977AJ02). At the higher excitation energies, states are reported at Ex = 17.200 ± 0.020, 17.825 ± 0.025, 18.531 ± 0.025, 18.69 ± 0.03, 18.90 ± 0.035, 19.55 ± 0.035, 19.91 ± 0.02, 20.538 ± 0.015, 21.175 ± 0.015, 21.84 ± 0.025, 22.65 ± 0.03 and 23.51 ± 0.03 MeV. The reaction excites known T = 0 states: σt follows 2Jf + 1 for 11 of 12 groups leading to states of known J. The angular distributions show little structure (1976AJ02). See also (1978MA07) and 20Ne.
This reaction plays an important role in astrophysical processes. (1974DY02) has determined σE1 for Eα = 1.88 to 3.92 MeV. From these data S(Eα(lab) = 400 keV) = 0.08+0.05-0.04 MeV · b (1974KO06) [used a hybrid R-matrix-optical-model analysis of (α, γ) and (α, α)], 0.08+0.14-0.07 MeV · b (1976HU10) [used a two channel, two level approximation of a modified K-matrix]. (1974DY02) state that S depends quite strongly on θ2α(6.92)/θ2 α(7.12): S may have to be increased to allow for the tail of 16O*(6.92). For astrophysical considerations see the "GENERAL" section here, (1971AJ02, 1977AJ02) and (1976FO1F, 1977BA3Y, 1977SA1W, 1978RO1D, 1978RO1L, 1978TA1U, 1980BA2R, 1981KH1B).
At higher energies the E2 cross section shows resonances at Ex = 13.2, 15.9, 16.5, 18.3, 20.0 and 26.5 MeV [see Table 16.13 (in PDF or PS)]. Some E2 strength is also observed for Ex = 14 to 15.5 and 20.5 to 23 MeV. In the range Eα = 7 to 27.5 MeV the T = 0 E2 strength is ≈ 17% of the sum rule. It appears from this and other experiments that the E2 centroid is at Ex ≈ 15 MeV, with a 15 MeV spread (1974SN02). Structures are observed in the yield of γ-rays from the decay of 16O*(14.8 ± 0.1) for Ex = 34 - 39 MeV. It is suggested that these correspond to a giant quadrupole excitation with Jπ = 8+ built on the 6+1 state at Ex = 14.816 MeV (1981SA07). See also (1975HA1R, 1980WE1D).
For cross-section measurements from threshold to Eα = 24.7 MeV see (1971AJ02) and Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.13 (in PDF or PS) here. The production of neutrons at Eα = 710 MeV has been studied by (1980CE01). See also (1977AJ02, 1977GR18, 1977LI19) and (1978WE1L; applications).
The yield of p0 has been studied for Eα = 7.7 to 23 MeV: see (1977AJ02), (1979AMZU, 1982AM02; 15 ≤ Ex ≤ 22 MeV) and (1979MO03; 17.5 ≤ Ex ≤ 18.7 MeV). The excitation curve for p3 (to 15N*(6.32)), measured for Eα = 24 to 33 MeV, shows a large peak at Ex ≈ 29 MeV, Γ ≈ 4 MeV. It is suggested that it is related to the GQR in 16O (1978BU27). For other resonances see Table 16.13 (in PDF or PS). See also 15N in (1981AJ01).
The yield of α-particles corresponding to 12C*(0, 4.4, 7.7) and of 4.4, 12.7 and 15.1 MeV γ-rays has been studied at many energies in the range Eα = 2.5 to 35.5 MeV: see Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02), (1978AM1B, 1979AMZU, 1979AMZZ, 1982AM02; Eα = 15 to 20 MeV), and (1979AR05; 17 to 23 MeV) and (1981FR11; 17.4 to 20.5 MeV; α2). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.13 (in PDF or PS). No evidence is observed for a narrow (100 eV) 0+ state in the vicinity of 16O*(8.87); thus the α-decay reported in 16N(β-) [reaction 52] appears to be due to 16O*(8.87) (Jπ = 2-) and is thus parity forbidden (1977MC08). No evidence is found by (1981FR11) for 8+ strength.
Total reaction cross-section measurements are reported at 1.55 and 2.89 GeV/c per nucleon (1978JA16). See also (1979DE1P, 1979DE31, 1980DE1H, 1980DE28, 1981BA1Q, 1981PE01). For π0 measurements see (1976WA10). For spallation measurements see (1977FO04, 1978DU1B, 1979GLZT, 1979VI05, 1980AB1B, 1981GOZY) and (1977AJ02).
See also (1978FR1L, 1979WA1L), (1976SI1E, 1980DE1Z), (1976CU07, 1977BA12, 1977BA1N, 1977BA30, 1976BR1L, 1977DA20, 1977FR12, 1977HU09, 1977IK1A, 1977SA2B, 1977ZE01, 1978FR1F, 1978SU1H, 1978SU1G, 1979VE1C, 1980BA2K, 1980DM1A, 1980FU05, 1980FU1F, 1980LI09, 1980ST1K, 1981SU05, 1981WI01; theor.) and 12C in (1980AJ01).
The yield of 8Be (reaction (a)) shows a number of resonances: see Table 16.13 (in PDF or PS). There is no evidence below Ex ≈ 24 MeV for Jπ = 8+ states although the existence of such states below this energy cannot be ruled out since it is possible that the L of the entrance channel inhibits the formation of such states. Above 26 MeV L = 8 becomes dominant (1976BR07). For reactions (b) and (c) see (1977AJ02).
This reaction has been studied at many energies: see the references in (1977AJ02) and Table 16.14 (in PDF or PS). At the higher energies the spectra are dominated by states with J ≥ 4 (and natural parity). An attempt to locate an 8+ state with Ex = 17 to 24 MeV by (d, α) angular correlations has been unsuccessful: see (1976AR10; E(6Li) = 29.0 and 34.7 MeV). The ratio R [≡ θ2α(7.1 MeV)/θ2α(9.6 MeV)] is of astrophysical interest: an FRDW analysis by (1980BE33) leads to R = 0.7 ± 0.2 for s = 5.4 fm. See also (1978BE43).
For analyzing power measurements see 18F in (1983AJ01): (1978MA13; E(6Li) = 20 MeV; to 16O states with Ex < 11.1 MeV). See also (1979BEZU, 1980FU1D, 1980MA1N), (1977FO1E, 1978BE1H, 1978FI1E, 1979MA1T) and (1976ST22, 1977BA56, 1978AP02, 1978CU07, 1978ME1J, 1979SU1F, 1979ZE1B, 1980AP02; theor.).
This reaction has been studied extensively: see (1977AJ02) for the earlier references. Observed states are displayed in Table 16.14 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been reported recently at E(7Li) = 34 MeV (1978BE42; first nine states) and at 68 MeV (1979BE1H; to 16O*(6.92, 10.35, 16.3)). The value of R [see reaction 9] derived by (1978BE42) is 0.35 ± 0.13. See also 19F in (1983AJ01), (1976SA1K, 1978CL08, 1979ROZH, 1980DE2K, 1981DE15) and (1977BI1F; theor.).
At E(10B) = 18 and 45 MeV angular distributions have been studied involving 16O*(0, 6.1, 7.1, 8.9, 9.9, 10.4) (1970HI08). At E(10B) = 68 MeV angular distributions to 16O*(0, 6.1, 6.9, 10.4, 11.1, 14.7, 16.2, 20.9) are forward peaked and fairly structureless. 16O*(0, 6.9, 11.1) are weakly excited (1981BI07). See also footnote i in Table 16.14 (in PDF or PS) and (1978BE2F).
Angular distributions have been reported at E(12C) to 63 MeV: see (1977AJ02). Angular correlations at E(12C) = 78 MeV confirm Jπ = 4+, 5-, 6+ and 7- for 16O*(10.35, 14.59, 16.3, 20.9). Γα0/Γ = 0.90 ± 0.10, 0.75 ± 0.15 and 0.90 ± 0.10, respectively, for the first three of these states. In addition a state is reported at Ex = 22.5 ± 0.5 MeV which may be the 8+ member of the Kπ = 0+, 4p - 4h rotational band (1977SA2A, 1979SA29). For the decay of 20Ne states see (1979YO04) and (1983AJ01). For excitation function and fusion measurements see (1977HI04, 1977WA04, 1978CO05, 1978JA08, 1979HEZX, 1980KO02, 1980WA16, 1980WI1E). See also (1977AB1E, 1978TO12; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(19F) = 40, 60 and 68.8 MeV involving different states in 15N and 16O*(0, 6.1, 7.0, 10.4) (1972SC17).
Angular distributions have been measured to E(20Ne) = 147 MeV: see (1977AJ02). Excitation functions are reported at E(20Ne) = 45.3 to 93.3 MeV (1978DO01) and 150 to 250 MeV (1979OR01: Ex = 10 - 15 MeV and 20 - 25 MeV). For an experiment studying 16O + α coincidences see (1981OS07). See also (1975PI05).
The yield of capture γ-rays has been studied for E(3He) to 16 MeV [see (1977AJ02)], as have angular distributions. Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS). It is suggested that the structures at Ex ≈ 26 - 29 MeV are part of giant resonances built on the first few excited states of 16O (1979VE02).
The excitation functions to E(3He) = 11 MeV are marked at low energies by complex structures and possibly by two resonances at E(3He) = 1.55 and 2.0 MeV: see Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS). See also (1977AJ02) for polarization measurements.
Excitation functions for E(3He) = 3.6 to 6.6 MeV have been measured for p0, p1+2, p3: a resonance is reported at E(3He) = 4.6 MeV (1978CH19). A resonance at 6 MeV has also been observed: see Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS). See also 15N in (1981AJ01).
See 14N in (1981AJ01).
The excitation function for formation of 13Ng.s. has been studied for E(3He) = 11 to 17 MeV: see (1977AJ02). Polarization measurements are reported by (1981BA1G) at E(pol. 3He) = 33 MeV (t0, t2+3). For reaction (b) see Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS).
Yields of α0, α1, α2 and γ-rays from the decay of 12C*(12.71, 15.11) have been studied up to E(3He) = 12 MeV. Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.15 (in PDF or PS). Those seen in the yield of γ15.1 are assumed to correspond to 16O states which have primarily a T = 1 character. Analyzing power measurements are reported at E(pol. 3He) = 33 MeV to 12C*(4.4) (1981KA1K). See (1971AJ02, 1977AJ02) for the earlier references and 12C in (1980AJ01).
The excitation function for 8Beg.s. has been studied for E(3He) = 2 to 6 MeV. It shows a strong resonance at E(3He) = 5.6 MeV corresponding to a state in 16O at Ex = 27.3 MeV. Jπ appears to be 2+ from angular distribution measurements (1968JA07).
Angular distributions for the n0 group have been measured for Eα = 12.8 to 22.5 MeV: see (1971AJ02). See also (1977AJ02), (1981HAZV), (1977SC1L, 1980CO1P, 1980TR1K; astrophys.) and (1978GE16, 1980BA1Q; applications).
Angular distributions have been studied at E(6Li) = 20 and 28 MeV to 16O*(0 [at 28 MeV], 6.13, 7.0, 8.87, 9.85, 10.35, 11.09). At these energies the spectra are dominated by the triton groups to 16O*(11.09, 14.30, 14.39, 14.82). At E(6Li) = 25 MeV the excitation of 16O*(14.52, 14.66) is also reported: see (1977AJ02) and (1980CU03). See also (1977MA2G) and 19F in (1983AJ01).
At E(3He) = 11 to 16 MeV, neutron groups are observed to T = 2 states at Ex = 22.717 ± 0.008 and 24.522 ± 0.011 MeV (Γ < 30 keV and < 50 keV, respectively). These two states are presumably the first two T = 2 states in 16O, the analog states to 16C*(0, 1.75). Jπ for 16O*(24.52) is found to be 2+ from angular distribution measurements (1970AD01). See also (1971AJ02).
For Ed = 0.66 to 5.62 MeV, there is a great deal of resonance structure in the excitation curves with the anomalies appearing at different energies at different angles: the more prominent structures in the yield curves are displayed in Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS). For polarization measurements see (1977AJ02). See also 15O in (1981AJ01), (1981NO1B) and (1977YO1F; applications).
The yield of various proton groups for Ed < 5.0 MeV shows some fluctuations and two resonances: see Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS) and (1971AJ02, 1977AJ02) for the earlier references. Recent work includes that of (1976VA20; 0.309 to 0.638 MeV; p0, p1+2, p3, p4, p5), (1980NI04; 0.32 to 1.45 MeV; p5), (1979US01; Ed-bar = 1.50 to 3.00 MeV; p5) and (1977KO33; Ed = 0.5 to 5.0 MeV; p0, p1+2, p3 → p8, p10). Polarization measurements are also reported by (1980KR01; Ed-bar = 10 MeV; p0, p1+2, p3, p7, p8; 9.5 to 10.75 MeV; p4, p5, p6). See also (1977AJ02) and 15N in (1981AJ01).
The yield of elastically scattered deuterons has been studied for Ed = 0.65 to 5.5 MeV and for 14.0 to 15.5 MeV: see (1971AJ02, 1977AJ02). There is indication of broad structure at Ed = 5.9 MeV and of sharp structure at Ed = 7.7 MeV in the total cross section of the d1 group to the T = 1 (isospin-forbidden), Jπ = 0+ state at Ex = 2.31 MeV in 14N. The yield of deuterons (d2) to 14N*(3.95) [Jπ = 1+, T = 0] shows gross structures at Ed = 7.4 and 10.2 MeV (1970DU04): see Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS). The yield of d1 has also been studied for Ed = 10.0 to 17.9 MeV by (1979AO01). For polarization measurements, see (1977AJ02) and (1980KR01: Ed = 10 MeV; d0). See also 14N in (1981AJ01) and (1977IZ01, 1977IZ1B, 1979SE04; theor.).
There is a great deal of structure in the yields of various α-particle groups for Ed = 0.5 to 12 MeV: see Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02) for the earlier work, and (1977KO33: 0.5 to 5.0 MeV; α0 → α3, α5 → α7). The latter group reports broad oscillations (Γ ≈ 0.5 MeV) in the α0 and α1 yields for Ed = 2.0 to 5.0 MeV. In addition, 16O*(23.54) is reflected in the α3 yield: see Table 16.16 (in PDF or PS). The yield of 15.11 MeV γ-rays [from the decay of 12C*(15.11), Jπ = 1+, T = 1] which is isospin-forbidden has been studied for Ed = 2.8 to 12 MeV. Pronounced resonances are observed at Ed = 4.2, 4.58 and 5.95 MeV and broader peaks occur at Ed = 7.1 and, possibly, at 8.5 MeV. See also 12C in (1980AJ01).
Observed proton groups are displayed in Table 16.17 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions have been measured at E(3He) = 2.5 to 24.7 MeV: see (1977AJ02) for the earlier work and (1979SL02: 9.8 MeV; p0), (1978BI10, 1978FO27: 15 MeV; most states in Table 16.17 (in PDF or PS)) and (1977MA2L: 24.7 MeV; p to 16O*(0, 6.13, 16.21, 17.14). Branching ratios and τm measurements are shown in Tables 16.11 (in PDF or PS) and 16.12 (in PDF or PS).
At E(3He) = 8 MeV a study of the protons in coincidence with 4.4 MeV γ-rays (reaction (b)) indicates that the reaction proceeds via 16O*(12.51, 13.97, 14.39, 14.92, 15.82, 16.23, 17.82, 18.04) [± 40 keV] (1969HO13). In a kinematically complete experiment at E(3He) = 13 MeV, 16O*(14.94, 18.04) are strongly populated (1980FRZN; prelim.). See also (1979HAYZ).
Angular distributions to states of 16O have been reported at many energies to Eα = 48 MeV: see (1971AJ02, 1977AJ02). Among the states reported by (1972LO08) [see Table 16.7 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02)] are 16O*(11.094 ± 3, 14.400 ± 3, 14.815 ± 2, 17.18 ± 50) [MeV ± keV]: the results of (1972LO08) are consistent with Jπ = 5+, 6+, 4+ for 16O*(14.40, 14.82, 16.29) [2p - 2h] and with 6+ for 16O*(16.30) [4p - 4h]. (1979CL10) report Γc.m. = 34 ± 12, 27 ± 5 and 70 ± 8 keV, respectively for 16O*(14.31 ± 10, 14.40 ± 10, 14.81). For reaction (b) see (1977AJ02).
Angular distributions have been measured at E(6Li) = 5.3 to 6.0 MeV and E(14N) = 27.6 MeV: see (1977AJ02).
The yield of ground state radiation (γ0) has been measured for Ep = 0.15 to 27.4 MeV: see Table 16.18 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and (1979SN01: Ep-bar = 4 to 9 MeV), (1977CH19: 6 to 22 MeV; also γ2), (1977CA21: Ep-bar = 8.6 to 11 MeV) and (1978OC01: 8.6 to 18 MeV; also γ1+2+3+4 for 12.7 → 18 MeV). Table 16.18 (in PDF or PS) displays the parameters of the observed resonances. The cross section shows a great deal of structure up to Ep = 17 MeV. Above that energy the γ0 yield decreases monotonically. Besides the GDR which peaks at 16O*(22.15) (1978OC01), the giant M2 resonance, based on 16O*(6.13), is identified to be 16O*(20.43) (1977CH19), and there is evidence for the emergence of a giant structure (E2) with Ex = 24 - 29 MeV in the γ1+2+3+4 yield (1978OC01). (1979SN01) report that the total M1 transition strength, built on the 2p - 2h ground state correlations, B(M1)(↓) ≥ 0.24 nm2 for 16O*(16.22, 17.14, 18.8).
A study of the M1 decays of 16O*(16.22, 17.14) [both Jπ = 1+; T = 1] to 16O*(6.05) finds B(M1, 1+ → 0+2)/B(M1, 1+ → 0+1) ≈ 0.7 for both transitions. The M1 (E2) γ-decay of 16O*(18.03, 18.98) [Jπ = 3-; T = 1 and Jπ = 4-; T = 1, respectively] to 16O*(6.13) [Jπ = 3-] are also reported by (1980IK1A). See also (1981SN1A).
Below Ep = 0.4 MeV capture to the ground state is dominant: S(0) = 64 ± 6 keV · b, a value which makes the oxygen side cycle in CNO burning more important than previously thought. Study of the direct radiative capture process leads to a single-particle spectroscopic factor C2S = 1.8 ± 0.4 for 16Og.s. (1974RO37).
For branching ratios and Γγ values for the low-energy resonances see Table 16.12 (in PDF or PS). See also (1978WI1J, 1979WIZW), (1975HA1Q, 1975PA1J, 1976HA1Q, 1979GL1H, 1979HA1G, 1979SN1A, 1980WE1D, 1981WI1E), (1975ZI1A, 1976BO1M, 1977RO1H, 1978RO1D, 1980BA2R; astrophys.) and (1977BA4A, 1977HO32, 1978BA52, 1978GA13; theor.).
Elastic scattering studies are reported for Ep = 0.6 to 15 MeV: see Table 16.20 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02), 16.18 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02), (1977JA11; 2.50 to 5.14 MeV) and (1978FR04; 2.88 to 3.64 MeV). See also (1976LAZL). Observed anomalies are displayed in Table 16.18 (in PDF or PS). For inelastic groups see (1971DR06). See also (1980FA06) and (1980DO01, 1980HA35; theor.).
Excitation functions and cross sections have been measured for Ep = 3.8 to 19.0 MeV: see (1977AJ02) and (1978CH09; 8.5 → 19.0 MeV; n0). For a listing of observed resonances see Table 16.19 (in PDF or PS). Angular distributions of n0 have been studied for Ep = 5.52 to 9.26 MeV (1981MU01) and 9.05 to 15.62 MeV (1981BY01). Polarization measurements are reported for the n0 group at Ep-bar = 7 to 17 MeV: see (1981MU1D, 1981WA1F). See also (1977BY1A, 1980BY1A, 1981BY1B), (1976WA1C, 1979BY1B, 1980WA1K, 1981CO1C, 1981WA1G) and (1977BA02, 1977HO32, 1979AB17, 1980DO01, 1980HA35, 1981PH1B; theor.).
The yields of the first three triton and 3He groups have been measured for Ep = 24.0 to 43.5 MeV (1974PI05, 1975MI01). Polarized protons with Ep = 43.8 MeV have been used to study the transitions to 13C*(0, 3.68, 7.55, 15.11) and 13N*(0, 3.51, 7.38, 15.07) (1974MA12). See also 13C, 13N in (1981AJ01).
Excitation functions for α0 and α1 particles [corresponding to 12C*(0, 4.43)] and of 4.43 MeV γ-rays have been measured for Ep = 93 keV to 45 MeV: see Tables 16.20 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02), 16.18 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and (1979ZY02: 93 to 418 keV; α0), (1977BR32: 0.9 to 1.25 MeV; α0, α1), (1977JA11: 2.5 to 5.14 MeV; α0, α1) and (1978FR04: 2.88 to 3.64 MeV; α0, α1). The yield of 15.11 MeV γ-rays has been measured for Ep = 12.5 to 17.7 MeV (1978OC01). Observed resonances are displayed in Table 16.18 (in PDF or PS).
A study of the α0 cross section for Ep = 93 to 418 keV leads to S(0) = 78 ± 6 MeV · b (1979ZY02). For the α1γ-channel S(0) ≈ 0.1 keV · b (1974RO37). See also (1977AJ02), (1979CL10), (1977RO1H, 1980BA2R; astrophys.), (1978TH1F; applications) and (1977GA1H; theor.).
At Eα = 65 MeV, the population of many 16O states with Ex < 22 MeV is reported by (1980YA1B).
The ground state of 16N decays to seven states of 16O: reported branching ratios are listed in Table 16.21 (in PDF or PS). The ground state transition has the unique first-forbidden shape corresponding to ΔJ = 2, yes, fixing Jπ of 16N as 2-: see (1959AJ76). For the β-decay of 16N*(0.12) see reaction 1 in 16N.
The α-decay of 16O*(8.87, 9.63, 9.85) has been observed: see (1971AJ02). The parity-forbidden α-decay from the 2- state 16O*(8.87) has been reported: Γα = (1.03 ± 0.28) × 10-10 eV [Eα = 1282 ± 5 keV] (1974NE10).
The absorption cross section and the (γ, n) cross section are marked by a number of resonances. On the basis of monoenergetic photon data, excited states of 16O are observed at Ex = 17.3 [u], 19.3 [u] and 21.0 MeV [u = unresolved], followed by the giant resonance whose principal structures are at ≈ 22.2 and 24.1 MeV, with additional structures at 23 and 25 MeV: see (1976BE1H, 1977AJ02). The cross section for (γ, n0) decreases monotonically for Ex = 25.5 to 43.8 MeV. There is a significant E2 cross section in that region: it exhausts ≈ 68% of the isovector E2 energy-weighted sum rule (1979PH07). The differential (γ, n0) cross sections have been measured for Eγ = 60 to 160 MeV (1980GO13).
The absorption cross section has been measured from Ebs = 10 MeV to above the meson threshold (1975AH06). The yield of reaction (b) has been studied from threshold to Eγ = 120 MeV [see (1977AJ02)] and for Ebs = 100 to 800 MeV (1977JO02). The (γ, Tn) cross section has recently been reported for Eγ = 15.9 to 39.7 MeV (1980JU01). See also (1976BE1H). The polarization of n0 has been studied for Eγ = 21.6 to 25.7 MeV (1979NA1R). See also (1977AJ02). For the decay of 16O* to 15O states, see 15O in (1981AJ01). See also (1975KN10), (1976BE1H, 1976KI1F, 1977DA1B, 1979HA1G, 1980CA1P, 1980SC1E, 1981SC1G) and (1976BA48, 1976KA34, 1977GR08, 1977MA2H, 1978CO14, 1978EL05, 1978KA1Q, 1978SC11, 1979MA2L, 1979RO04, 1979RO1B, 1980BO1P, 1980DU21, 1980OS1A, 1980TA1D, 1981BA04, 1981BO1P, 1981CA1F, 1981KO1G, 1981RO1N, 1981WE1C; theor.).
The (γ, p0) cross section derived from the inverse capture reaction (reaction 43) confirms the giant resonance structure indicated above, in reaction 53, as do also the direct (γ, p0) measurements. The total (γ, p) cross section is given by (1968DE07). Recent measurements of the (γ, p0) cross section are reported by (1977FI03: Ebs = 40 to 105 MeV), (1980SC27: Eγ = 80 MeV; forward angles) and (1977MA01: Ebs = 100 to 280 MeV). See also (1977AJ02) and (1980KH1C, 1980KI1E). The momentum distribution for p1/2 shell protons in 16O up to 930 MeV/c has been derived by (1978FI05). See also (1979MA1G). Branching ratios for the decays of 16O states in the giant resonance region to various excited states in 15N are discussed in 15N (1981AJ01).
The cross section for reaction (b) for Ebs = 175 MeV is reported by (1979BO21). See also (1977BE2L, 1981YA1A). For other π-emitting photonuclear reactions see (1979EP02, 1980BO24) and "Special reactions involving 16O" section here. See also (1976HA1Q, 1980WE1D, 1981HA1T) and (1976BA48, 1976KA34, 1977NE2A, 1978FI10, 1978RO05, 1978SC11, 1979KO17, 1979LE1N, 1979LO03, 1979WA1G, 1980MO1M, 1981BO14, 1981BO1P, 1981CA1F, 1981CO1K; theor.).
For the earlier work on these reactions see (1971AJ02, 1977AJ02). For reaction (a) see also (1979WIZW). A study of the 16O(γ, α0) reaction at θ = 45° and 90° shows a 2+ resonance at Ex = 18.2 MeV with an E2 strength which is spread out over a wide energy interval. A strong resonance corresponding to an isospin-forbidden 1- state at Ex ≈ 21.1 MeV is also observed (1975SK06). For spallation see (1978DI1A). See also (1981CH28).
(1970AH02) report resonances at Eγ = 22.5 ± 0.3, 25.2 ± 0.3, 31.8 ± 0.6 and 50 ± 3 MeV: the dipole sum up to 80 MeV exceeds the classical value 60 NZ/A MeV · mb by a factor 1.4. See also (1980IS09). The integrated cross section to 31 MeV for elastic scattering is 0.62 ± 0.07 MeV · mb; the inelastic is ≤ 5% of the elastic cross section (1980IS1G). For widths of excited states of 16O see Table 16.22 (in PDF or PS). The separation between the 16O*(7.12, 6.92) γ-lines is 199.8 ± 0.5 keV (1970SW03). Based on 7116.85 ± 0.14 keV (Table 16.11 (in PDF or PS)), Ex for the lower state is 6917.11 ± 0.6 keV.
The 16O charge radius = 2.710 ± 0.015 fm (1978KI01). Form factors for transitions to the ground and to excited states of 16O have been reported in many studies: see (1977AJ02) and (1979MI09: q = 0.5 to 2.6 fm-1; elastic). Table 16.22 (in PDF or PS) lists the excited states observed from (e, e'). The isospin-forbidden (E1) excitation of 16O*(7.12) has been reported by (1975MI08, 1975MI13): the isovector contribution interferes destructively with the isoscalar part and has a strength ≈ 1% of the T = 0 amplitude (1975MI08). The 0+ states of 16O*(6.05, 12.05, 14.00) saturate ≈ 19% of an isoscalar monopole sum rule (1973BE50). As for the E2 strength it is distributed over a wide energy region: see Table 16.22 (in PDF or PS). The effective mass of an intranuclear nucleon has been derived by (1978DE32) from studies on this and on other light nuclei. See also (1980DE2G).
Reaction (b) has been studied at Ee = 500 MeV: two peaks at E = 11.5 and 18 MeV carry most of the strength of the 1p1/2 and 1p3/2 hole states, respectively (1977TU1C). See also (1977BE1Q, 1980BAZG). The virtual photon shape and intensity for (e, e'π) has been deduced at Ee = 180.4 MeV (Eπ = 28 MeV, θπ = 90°) (1980ST15). The ratio π-/π+ for Ee = 280 MeV (Eπ = 10 MeV, θπ = 90°) is reported by (1979JE04). See also (1976BU1H, 1979SC1E, 1980BU1C, 1981BU1C), (1976TU1C, 1979LI06, 1979MO1G, 1980CA1J, 1980MO1C, 1981MO1H) and (1976AN1D, 1976BH1B, 1976FR1G, 1976GA24, 1976HE20, 1976RA34, 1977DE16, 1977HE13, 1977WA1G, 1978CA08, 1978FU04, 1978HA36, 1978HA43, 1978KA04, 1978KR04, 1978RI1C, 1979BU1A, 1979DO17, 1979IN06, 1979KN1E, 1979KO29, 1979LI15, 1979WA1G, 1979RO02, 1980DE30, 1980ER01, 1980GR05, 1980SA1E, 1980SH1N, 1980VA07, 1981AG02, 1981BA10, 1981BO1M, 1981BU04, 1981DE1T, 1981KA12, 1981OR1B, 1981PE1C; theor.).
Angular distributions of elastically scattered pions have been studied at Eπ+ = 20 MeV (1981OB1B), Eπ- = 20, 30, 40 and 50 MeV (1981KA1N), 29.2 MeV (1979JO08), Eπ+ = 30.0 and 49.7 MeV (1981PR03), 40 and 49.7 MeV (1978MA14, 1979BL07), 46.8 MeV (1979DY02), 79, 114, 163, 240 and 343 MeV (1978AL03, 1978IN04, 1978JA13 (π±), 1980AL24), at Eπ- = 114, 163 and 240 MeV (1978IN04) and at Eπ± = 165 and Eπ+ = 315 MeV (1980NA10). At Eπ- = 1 GeV/c angular distributions of 16O*(0, 6.1) are reported. See also (1978BU09) and (1977AJ02) for the earlier work. At Eπ+ = Eπ- = 164 MeV 16O*(0, 6.1, 6.9 + 7.1, 11.5, 17.8, 19.0, 19.8) are relatively strongly populated. The π+ and π- cross sections to 16O*(17.8, 19.8) [Jπ = 4-; T = 0] are substantially different while those to 16O*(19.0) [4-; 1] are equal. Isospin mixing is suggested with off-diagonal charge-dependent mixing matrix elements of -147 ± 25 and -99 ± 17 keV (1980HO13). [See also reaction 81]. See also (1977MI19, 1980MI05, 1981BA1N, 1981BA12, 1981OBZZ), (1980DE24, 1981CU04, 1981TA08; theor.) and the "Pion capture and reactions" section here.
Angular distributions have been measured at energies to En = 24 MeV: see Tables 16.27 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02) and 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and (1975BE1Y: 5.04, 6.25, 9.29 MeV), (1978NO04: 8.85 MeV; 6.13 MeV γ-ray), (1977GL1B: 9.25 to 15 MeV; n0) and (1980GR15: 24 MeV; n0, n2, n3) [β3 = 0.60, β2 = 0.36]. The energy of 16O*(6.13) is Ex = 6129.1 ± 1.2 keV [Eγ = 6127.8 ± 1.2 keV] (1966BE1A). See also (1978BE2B), (1977AJ02), (1977NO07, 1977PH01, 1978TA1A, 1978TH1A; theor.) and 17O.
Angular distributions of elastically and inelastically scattered protons have been measured at many energies up to Ep = 1000 MeV: see Tables 16.27 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02), 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and 16.23 (in PDF or PS) here. Parameters of the observed groups are displayed in Table 16.24 (in PDF or PS). At Ep = 135 MeV, 16O*(17.79, 18.98, 19.80) [± 0.04 MeV] are strongly populated: the angular distributions of the proton groups lead to an assignment of 4- for 16O*(17.79) (1979HE09). Angular distributions of the protons to 16O*(8.88) [Jπ = 2-] at Ep-bar = 42.5, 44.0 and 49.3 MeV lead to strength distributions which suggest the existence of an octupole (E3) giant resonance at Ex ≈ 40 MeV (1977PE09). At Ep-bar = 40 MeV the spin-flip cross section to 16O*(8.88) is interpreted as showing dominance of multistep processes in the reaction (1978MO14, 1981CO08). See also (1977KI1N; 3 GeV; intensity of 6.13 MeV γ-ray).
For reaction (b) see (1976KI10, 1980KI06; Ep-bar = 200 MeV). See also (1977NA29, 1978NA18, 1980SA1J), 14N in (1981AJ01) and 17F. For reactions (c), (d) and (e) see (1977GR04; Ep = 75 MeV). For reaction (f) see (1981CA02; Ep = 101.5 MeV; to 12Cg.s.) and 12C in (1980AJ01). For the cross section for production of pions at Ep = 585 MeV see (1979CR1E). For antiproton scattering see (1981AU01; theor.).
See also (1976NO02, 1977BA85, 1981KR1B), (1976HA1Q, 1977BA2G, 1977BR1E, 1978AL1G, 1979DE1P, 1979LI06, 1980DE1V, 1980WH1A, 1981MO1L, 1981RA1B), (1976AN1E, 1976GO04, 1977AL06, 1977DY1D, 1977GA22, 1977KO2G, 1977LE05, 1977MA15, 1977MA2J, 1977MO1T, 1977PH02, 1977VA12, 1977VI03, 1978AL07, 1978AU12, 1978AU1E, 1978BI1L, 1978BR06, 1978BR28, 1978CH28, 1978CU04, 1978GO1L, 1978HA18, 1978HA35, 1978HE03, 1978IO1B, 1978LE06, 1978MA25, 1978PH01, 1978PI01, 1978WR01, 1979AB13, 1979BI1C, 1979HE04, 1979JA1P, 1979KI10, 1979KO01, 1979KO1C, 1979KO2D, 1979KU07, 1979MA20, 1979MA1M, 1979MI1K, 1979PH05, 1979WA09, 1979WA1G, 1980AM1D, 1980AY01, 1980DEYU, 1980KO1V, 1980MA06, 1980MC1C, 1980WU02, 1981BA12, 1981MI1B, 1981PE1C, 1981RO08, 1981TH1B, 1981TUZZ; theor.) and 17F.
Angular distribution studies have been carried out for Ed up to 81.6 MeV: see Tables 16.27 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02), 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and 16.23 (in PDF or PS) here. Observed deuteron groups are displayed in Table 16.24 (in PDF or PS). See also 18F in (1983AJ01), (1977TE1A) and (1976CO29, 1976LE26, 1977DM1A, 1978LE13, 1978TA1A, 1978TH1A, 1979GR11, 1980AY01, 1980NI11; theor.).
Angular distributions are reported for Et to 20.01 MeV: see Tables 16.27 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02) and 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02). See also (1978LE13, 1980KH09; theor.). See also 19F in (1978AJ03).
Angular distributions have been measured to E(3He) = 132 MeV: see Tables 16.27 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02), 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and 16.23 (in PDF or PS) here. Inelastic groups are shown in Table 16.24 (in PDF or PS). The total E2 strength exhausted to Ex = 30 MeV is ≈ 37% of the quadrupole EWSR (1977BU03; see also for β2R). See also (1977SE1F), (1975AU01; Sα), (1976HA1Q, 1979KA1G, 1980TR1L) and (1977LE05, 1978LE13, 1978TA1A, 1978TH1A, 1979BE1Q, 1979LE18; theor.).
Angular distributions of α-particles have been measured up to Eα = 146 MeV: see Tables 16.27 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02), 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and 16.23 (in PDF or PS) here. Observed excited states are displayed in Table 16.24 (in PDF or PS).
The isoscalar (E2, T = 0) giant resonance decays predominantly via the α1 channel which contains ≈ 40% of the E2 EWSR, rather than via the α0 and p0 channels (1978KN02; Eα = 155 MeV). See also (1976HA27, 1980HA07, 1981HA14). Reaction (b) has also been studied by (1980WA07; Eα = 140 MeV) and (1979DO04; Eα = 700 MeV): values of Sα and Neff are derived. See also (1976WO11, 1977AJ02). For the (α, αp) reaction see (1980SA1D).
See also 20Ne in (1983AJ01), (1975DE1J, 1978SH1H, 1980SH1A), (1978PO1D; applied), (1980RE1A; astrophys.), (1976BE1P, 1976HA1Q, 1977MA2E, 1978CH1C, 1979BE2K, 1979KN1F, 1979MA1V, 1980SP1E, 1980WE1D, 1981CA1D) and (1975CO1H, 1976AM02, 1976BA52, 1976CU07, 1976HE19, 1976LO1F, 1976MI17, 1976PA20, 1977AB03, 1977BA12, 1977BR06, 1977BU01, 1977CL1D, 1977DM1A, 1977IK1C, 1977HO1H, 1977LE05, 1977OH01, 1977SA19, 1977TR1A, 1977WE1M, 1978CH1Y, 1978LE13, 1978MA1G, 1978TA1A, 1978TH1A, 1978ZE03, 1979CO1P, 1979GR11, 1979IZ01, 1979JA01, 1979JA15, 1979LA08, 1979LE1B, 1979LE11, 1979VE09, 1980DM1A, 1980KH09, 1980LE26, 1980TO1E, 1981DY02; theor.).
For studies of the elastic scattering see Table 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and 16.23 (in PDF or PS) here. For studies of (d - α) angular correlations see 20Ne in (1983AJ01). See also (1977SA1X, 1979KN1A), (1976OG1A, 1978FI1E) and (1978ME14, 1978PE1C, 1979SU1F, 1980KH09, 1981ME1E, 1981DY02, 1981GU1B; theor.).
Angular distributions are displayed in Table 16.23 (in PDF or PS). For fusion cross-section measurements (reaction (a)) see (1979GO09, 1980WI09, 1981THZY). See also (1979GO1R) and (1980VA03, 1981VA1E; theor.).
Angular distributions have been reported at many energies to E(16O) = 315 MeV: see reaction 64 (1971AJ02) and Tables 16.25 (in PDF or PS) (1977AJ02) and 16.23 (in PDF or PS) here. Most of the studies of this reaction have involved yield and cross-section measurements, as they apply to compound structures in 28Si, as well as fusion cross sections: see (1977AJ02) and to compound structures in 28Si, as well as fusion cross sections: see (1977AJ02) and (1977BR38, 1977CO20, 1977NA23, 1977TA03, 1978CH15, 1978FE04, 1978JA04, 1978KA13, 1978MA22, 1978MA32, 1978SC06, 1979CH07, 1979FU02, 1979JA25, 1979KO03, 1979KO20, 1980BE02, 1980FR10, 1980FR05, 1980JA06, 1981FU05). See also (1976FR20, 1978CI06, 1978MA1R, 1978SH01, 1979FRZX, 1979LUZW, 1979UZ1A, 1980FR1N, 1980WI1P, 1981SCZX, 1981WIZW).
At E(16O) = 77 MeV reaction (b) mainly proceeds via 16O*(10.3 ± 0.4, 14.8 ± 0.4) [which are associated with the Jπ = 4+, 6+ states 16O*(10.35, 14.82)] (1979FU02). At E(16O) = 140 MeV the breakup is interpreted as proceeding via 16O*(11.6, 13.1, 15.8) (1980RA12). See also (1979SC10). For the excitation of the GQR in 12C see (1979DO01: E(16O) = 315 MeV).
See also (1978LAZZ, 1979GAZV, 1979SA1L, 1980TA1B), (1977GA1B, 1978GA1B, 1978HO1C, 1978LE1T, 1978MA1F, 1978TA1B, 1978TS04, 1979GA1F, 1980ER1D, 1980GA1E), (1978RO1D; astrophys.) and (1976BA52, 1976CH1M, 1977BA28, 1977BA3E, 1977CH11, 1977CL1D, 1977FR12, 1977JA1E, 1977PA1G, 1977RO1N, 1978AB1C, 1978AV1A, 1978BA53, 1978BH1B, 1978BI1G, 1978FR1N, 1978GO07, 1978MA28, 1978MA50, 1978MA1G, 1978TA16, 1978TA11, 1978VA1A, 1979GO24, 1979KR07, 1979NA03, 1979STZU, 1979TA07, 1979TA1K, 1979TA12, 1979TE1A, 1979VE1C, 1980AB1D, 1980DE2A, 1980DR08, 1980FU1F, 1980GA1J, 1980HU02, 1980KO27, 1980LA16, 1980LA1N, 1980TA1E, 1980TA1G, 1980VA03, 1980VO1D, 1981GA1D, 1981GU1B, 1981HA18, 1981HU1D, 1981SC05, 1981TA01, 1981TO1F, 1981UB01, 1981WI01; theor.).
For elastic scattering studies see Table 16.23 (in PDF or PS). For reaction (a) see also (1979CH07; fusion), (1980RA12; α-breakup) and (1976DU04, 1979GAZV). For reaction (b) see (1978BE2C, 1981KO07). For theoretical papers see (1978PA1B, 1978SC1E, 1979HE02, 1979PAZY, 1981HA18).
For elastic scattering studies see Table 16.23 (in PDF or PS) and (1977AJ02). For total fusion cross-section measurements (reaction (a)) see (1977SW02, 1977VO08, 1981VO01). See also (1978AV1A, 1978VA1A; theor.).
The angular distributions for elastic scattering have been measured with E(16O) up to 140.4 MeV: see reaction 66 in (1971AJ02), Table 16.25 (in PDF or PS) in (1977AJ02) and 16.23 (in PDF or PS) here. The angular distributions corresponding to the excitation of the first four excited states of 16O have been studied at 51.5 and 140.4 MeV: see (1977AJ02). For yield and total fusion cross sections see (1977KO16, 1978FE04, 1978TS04, 1979CH19, 1979KO15, 1979KO20, 1980FR10, 1980HU12, 1981LA08). See also (1980CH1E, 1980WE1B, 1981VOZX).
See also (1977CO1Q, 1978HA1F, 1979GAZV, 1979LAZR, 1979SA26, 1979SA1L, 1980CO08, 1981DE20), (1978HO1C), (1978RO1D; astrophys.) and (1976AL1E, 1976AR14, 1976BA52, 1976CH1M, 1976CU07, 1976LO1F, 1976MI17, 1976MO31, 1977BA07, 1977BR06, 1977CA07, 1977CH11, 1977CL1D, 1977FL02, 1977FR12, 1977FR1N, 1977FR18, 1977FU1K, 1977GA1K, 1977HA27, 1977HO1N, 1977IK1A, 1977KO03, 1977LA1D, 1977OS02, 1977PL02, 1977SA1P, 1977SA09, 1977SA10, 1977SA1C, 1977TO08, 1977WE1M, 1977ZI01, 1978AN1J, 1978AN24, 1978AR1H, 1978AV1A, 1978BA2C, 1978BE2E, 1978BO10, 1978BR1M, 1978CH10, 1978CU1E, 1978CU06, 1978DA18, 1978FL04, 1978FR1H, 1978GU06, 1978KO22, 1978KR13, 1978LE16, 1978LE17, 1978PA1G, 1978SC1K, 1978SC23, 1978SC1E, 1978SI08, 1978SU1C, 1978VA1G, 1978VA1A, 1978VO06, 1978VO13, 1979AN11, 1979BE32, 1979CH19, 1979DH01, 1979FR11, 1979JA08, 1979MU1D, 1979PH01, 1979SI05, 1979SI06, 1979TA1K, 1979VE1C, 1980AB1D, 1980AN30, 1980BA48, 1980BE25, 1980FA1D, 1980FL02, 1980GA1E, 1980KO08, 1980KO21, 1980KO24, 1980KO27, 1980LA1M, 1980OH05, 1980PR1C, 1980SI09, 1980SI1J, 1980TA03, 1980TA1E, 1980TA14, 1980TO1D, 1980VA03, 1980VI1B, 1980WO01, 1981AB1A, 1981BA02, 1981DE13, 1981DY02, 1981HA18, 1981HE01, 1981MA1G, 1981SA12, 1981SA1K, 1981SI1E, 1981TA14, 1981UB01, 1981VA1E; theor.).
Angular distributions of elastically scattered ions have been studied at E(16O) = 24, 28 and 32 MeV and E(17O) = 53.0 to 66 MeV (reaction (a)) and at E(16O) = 24 to 54.8 MeV and E(18O) = 53.1 to 89.3 MeV (reaction (b)): see (1977AJ02) and (1981CA1E; E(18O) = 35 MeV). Yields and fusion cross sections are reported by (1980WI09) (reaction (a)) and (1978FR05) (reaction (b)). See also (1977CA1Q, 1979RA10), (1974FI1D, 1978HO1C) and (1977IM1B, 1978LE16, 1978LE17, 1979CR03, 1979LE1B; theor.).
Elastic scattering angular distributions have been measured at E(16O) = 40.7, 51.1 and 59.4 MeV (see (1977AJ02)), 94.8 MeV (1977MO1A, 1979MO14; also excited states of 20Ne) and at E(20Ne) = 50 MeV (1976ST18; also excited states of 20Ne). See also (1980GAZX). For yield and fusion cross-section measurements see (1978SH1P, 1978GA1G, 1979GA1F, 1979GAZY, 1979KOZL, 1979REZS, 1980DI1B, 1980GAZX, 1981GA1D, 1981GA1F; all abstracts). See also (1979VA1B) and (1979JA11, 1979LE1B, 1980GA1E, 1980OH05, 1981AN1D; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions are reported at E(16O) = 35 to 50 MeV (1979FO13), 46.3 and 60.3 MeV (1980PA08; also 2+ in 24Mg) and 67 MeV (1981EC02; also various 24Mg states) for reaction (a), and at 35 to 50 MeV (1979FO13) and 27.4 to 48.4 MeV (1980RO16; also 2+ in 26Mg) for reaction (b). Yield and fusion measurements have been carried out by (1978HO20, 1978TA05, 1979FO13, 1979LE02, 1979PEZP, 1980KO1D, 1980PA08, 1980RO16, 1981DR02). See also (1980RA1F), (1978TA1B) and (1978HO13, 1980GA1J, 1980LO02, 1980PA1H, 1980SA1G, 1981DE16; theor.).
An elastic angular distribution has been measured at E(16O) = 46.5 MeV (1978PE13). For yield and fusion cross-section measurements see (1977EI01, 1979RA21, 1980SH10, 1981LE04). See also (1978KE1H, 1979VA12, 1980MI1B, 1980SA1L, 1980TA1B), (1977SC1G, 1978HO1C, 1978MA1F, 1979HU1E) and (1977AF04, 1978BI1G, 1978VA1A, 1979KA27, 1980LO02, 1980SA1G, 1981AC1A, 1981DE16, 1981SA02, 1981VA1H; theor.).
Angular distributions for reaction (a) are reported at E(16O) = 32 MeV (1978CA07; also 28Si* 2+), 33 to 81 MeV [(1973GA09) and see (1976CR04)], 33, 36 and 38 MeV (1977EC04), 35.7 and 38.2 MeV (1979REZT), 41.23 to 63 MeV (1977BR10, 1978GE14, 1978SH02, 1980SH1D, 1980SH1L), 56 MeV (1979ME04; also 28Si*), 60 MeV (1978DU07; also 28Si*), 141.5 MeV (1978SA06; also 28Si*) and 215.2 MeV (1976CR04). For reaction (c) see (1979REZT). For yield and fusion cross-section measurements see (1978BA02, 1979BA49, 1979FO13, 1979JO07, 1979KU09, 1979RA21, 1980BE03). See also (1979BRZW).
See also (1977ZE1F, 1978ST1F, 1979DE1N, 1979HE1M, 1980ZI02) and (1977UD1A, 1978DE09, 1978DU10, 1978FR1B, 1978LE21, 1978SH23, 1978TA14, 1978TE04, 1978VA1A, 1979AN1N, 1979FR01, 1979KA27, 1979KOZW, 1979KR08, 1979LA03, 1979LI05, 1979SA27, 1980BA44, 1980CR01, 1980DR08, 1980FA1D, 1980FR1F, 1980GA1E, 1980GO08, 1980LA1M, 1980MA34, 1980TO1E, 1981FR12, 1981ME03, 1981RA08, 1981VI01; theor.).
Elastic angular distributions are reported on 40Ca at E(16O) = 50 MeV (1979KU02), 51.5 and 54 MeV (1981AL12; also 40Ca*), 56.8 to 62.8 MeV (1978GE09), 60 MeV (1978RE02; also 40Ca*) and 55.6, 74.4, 103.6, 139.6 and 214.1 MeV (1979VI13), while the elastic scattering on 48Ca has been studied at 60 MeV (1978KO01; also 40Ca*). Yield and fusion cross-section measurements are reported by (1978GE09, 1979KU02, 1979VI13, 1980KU1F). See also (1978OL1B), (1977ZE1F, 1979HE1M) and (1977AF04, 1977WE1M, 1978KO1U, 1978PA1G, 1978PE1E, 1979BA38, 1979BA41, 1979BE32, 1979BO18, 1979LE1B, 1979PEZR, 1979WO1C, 1980BE19, 1980IZ1A, 1980LA1M, 1980LE11, 1980MA34, 1980RH1A, 1980WO06, 1981VA1H; theor.).
Angular distributions for the ground state deuteron group have been studied at Ep = 8.62 to 11.44 MeV (1975CR05). At Ep = 31 MeV, angular distributions are reported for the deuterons corresponding to 16O*(0, 6.05 + 6.13, 7.12, 8.87, 10.35, 12.97, 13.26). States at Ex = 15.22 and 15.42 MeV were also observed. Spectroscopic factors were obtained from a DWBA analysis (1970ME01).
Information obtained from this reaction at Ed = 52 MeV is displayed in Table 16.20 (in PDF or PS). Comparison of the (d, t) and (d, 3He) reactions leads to assignments of analog states in 16N and in 16O [see reaction 26 in 16N and Table 16.10 (in PDF or PS)] (1977WA11, 1978MA16). See also (1981MA1E). A study of this reaction, the (d, 3He) reaction, and reaction 82 below, suggests that there is more than 17% isospin mixing of the 2- states 16O*(12.97, 12.53): the corresponding mixing matrix element is ≥ 155 ± 30 keV (1977WA11). An isospin mixing matrix element of 110 ± 10 keV for the 4- states 16O*(17.79, 18.98, 19.80) is compatible with the results from this reaction and with pion scattering (1981CU04). [See also reaction 58.] See also (1980BR1H) below and 19F in (1983AJ01).
Angular distributions are reported at E(3He) = 11 MeV (1971BO02). Angular correlations have been studied by (1980BR1H) [see for spectroscopic factors relating to a number of states of 16O with Ex > 12.9 MeV with the 17Og.s. as well as with states of 15N]. Table 16.20 (in PDF or PS) displays some of the information derived from this reaction. For polarization measurements see (1981KA1L, 1981RO1H) and 20Ne in (1983AJ01).
Angular distributions of tritons have been measured for Ep to 43.7 MeV: see (1971AJ02, 1977AJ02) for the earlier references and (1980AN21; Ep = 23 MeV; t0). The population of 16O*(22.7, 24.5) is consistent with L = 0 and 2, respectively, and with assignments of T = 2, Jπ = 0+ and 2+ (1964CE05). The decay of 16O*(22.7), [Jπ = 0+; T = 2], is via α0, α1 and α2 [12C*(0, 4.4, 7.7)] with 1.6 ± 0.7, 1.9 ± 0.7 and 14 ± 2% branches and Γi(eV) = 190 ± 100, 230 ± 110 and 1680 ± 550 eV, respectively; via p0, p1+2, p3 with 7 ± 2, 11 ± 2 and 5 ± 2% branches and Γi(eV) = 840 ± 343, 1320 ± 454 and 600 ± 300 eV; and via n1+2 with a 23 ± 15% branch [Γn = 2760 ± 1970 eV] (the n0 branch is < 15%) (1979FR04) [Γi are based on a total width of 12 ± 3.5 keV]. See also (1977AJ02), 19F in (1983AJ01) and (1977ST19, 1978KU03, 1979AM03, 1979BE34, 1980FE01, 1980WE03, 1980WE10, 1981BE09; theor.).
Angular distributions have been measured at Eα = 58 MeV to 16O*(0, 6.1, 6.92, 7.12). Groups at Ex = 10.4, 13.3 ± 0.1 and 16.3 ± 0.1 MeV were also observed (1975VA01).
Angular distributions have been reported at many energies to Ep = 44.5 MeV [see (1977AJ02)] and at Ep = 0.83 to 0.87 MeV (1974CA22: α0), 1.5 to 3.8 MeV (1976CA1P: α0), 2.06 to 2.68 MeV (1980CU09: α0, α1) and 13.5 to 18.0 MeV (1977ST03: α0). Observed states of 16O are displayed in Table 16.31 (in PDF or PS) in (1971AJ02).
The E0 transition (6.05 → 0; 0+ → 0+) has been investigated in some detail: the internal conversion to pair production ratio is (4.00 ± 0.46) × 10-5 (1963LE06). The ratio of double γ-emission to pair production ΓE1E1/ΓE0(π) = (2.5 ± 1.1) × 10-4 (1975WA20). τm for 16O*(6.05) = 96 ± 7 psec (1973BI17). 16O*(6.13) has also been studied extensively: |g| = 0.55 ± 0.04, τm = 26.6 ± 0.7 psec (1973BR31). A search for double positron-electron pair creation by the 6.13 MeV γ-ray was unsuccessful: the ratio of the cross section for production of such a double pair to the cross section for formation of a single pair is -(2 ± 5) × 10-5 (1972WI09). The previously reported ground state decay of 16O*(10.95) [0- → 0+] is not observed; neither is a pair peak due to a (10.95 → 7.12) decay (1978AL19). For γ-ray branching ratios and lifetimes see Tables 16.10 (in PDF or PS) and 16.11 (in PDF or PS).
Angular distributions have been measured to E(3He) = 40.7 MeV: see (1977AJ02).
At E(3He) = 30 MeV angular distributions involving 16O*(0, 6.1) and the first two states of 7Be are reported by (1970DE12).